Property Law Library
Boundaries and adverse possession
Deeds, plans and boundary features
Adverse possession and Pye v Graham
Land Registration Act 2002
Acknowledgement of title
Trees and hedges
Business lease renewal
Does the Act apply?
Section 25 notices
Section 26 requests
New lease terms
Easements on renewal
Insolvency of landlord
Registration of claim
Co-ownership and estoppel
Legal and beneficial ownership
Pallant v Morgan
Yeomans Row v Cobbe
Yeomans and s2 of 1989 Act
Assurance and reliance - Thorner
Laches and estoppel
Satisfying the equity
Trusts of Land etc Act 1996
Construing rights of way
Extent of grant
Implied and s62
Increasing the burden
Parking and mooring
Repair to right of way
Right to light
Excluding the right
Types of easement
Landlord and tenant (general)
Material compliance and breaches
Repayment of rent
Chattels and fixtures
Construction of lease terms
Schedules and notices
Standard of repair
Damages and s18 cap
Section 146 notices
Goods left on the premises
L & T (Covenants) Act 1995
Notices - service
Presumption of reality
Time of essence
Rent review notices
Restraint of trade
Service charges and insurance (general)
Subletting, sharing possession or occupation
Surrender by operation of law
Tenancy at will
Terms of the transfer
Ground rent notices
Right to manage
Manager under 1987 Act
Service and administration charges and insurance
Construction of the lease
Service charge demands
Summary of leaseholder's rights
The 18-month rule
Consultation of tenants
Compromise of service charge dispute
Transfer to First-tier Tribunal
Variation of lease terms
Mobile homes and caravans
Negligence and loans
Limitation and shortfall
Time to sell
Solicitor's breach of trust and negligence
Tenants of mortgagees
Nuisance and trespass
Abating the nuisance
Damages - account of profits
Defects in neighbouring property
Change of use
Property litigation and ADR
Damages in lieu of injunction
Protection from Eviction Act
Disability discrimination defences
Human Rights Act defences
Orders for possession
Defective Premises Act
Failure to complete
Gifts of land
Guarantees and indemnities
Misrepresentation and answers to enquiries
Notice to complete
Writing - s2 of 1989 Act
Public access to land
Right to roam
Town and village greens
The main cases
Cancellation of registration
User as of right
Family Intervention Tenancies
Injunctions under 1996 Act
Housing disrepair claims
Defective Premises Act
Liability of landlord
Damages for disrepair
Costs in disrepair cases
Notice to quit
Proceeds of crime
Rent Act 1977
Right to buy
Tenant's notice to quit
Benefit of covenants
Consent to development
Interpretation - breach
Modification and discharge
Variation under s610 of 1985 Act
Boundaries and adverse possession.
Business lease renewal.
Co-ownership and estoppel.
Landlord and tenant (general).
Nuisance and trespass.
Property litigation and ADR.
Public access to land.
John de Waal
Tactics and strategy at mediation
Mixed Use Properties
Boundaries and party walls.
Commons and village greens.
Conveyancing and property development.
Long leases and enfranchisement.
Cases and articles
Neighbour and boundary disputes
Residential landlord and tenant
Statutes and SI's
Property Law Library
Terms of the transfer
This page has cases concerned with the question of what is a "house"!
"Designed or adapted for living in"
The relevant statutory provision is s2 of the Leasehold Reform Act 1967 which is in the following terms:
“(1) For purposes of this Part of this Act, “house” includes any building designed or adapted for living in and
reasonably so called
, notwithstanding that the building is not structurally detached, or was or is not solely designed or adapted for living in, or is divided horizontally into flats or maisonettes; and—
(a) where a building is divided horizontally, the flats or other units into which it is so divided are not separate “houses”, though the building as a whole may be; and
(b) where a building is divided vertically the building as a whole is not a “house” though any of the units into which it is divided may be.”
Boss Holdings Ltd v Grosvenor West End Properties
 UKHL 5
Section 2 of the Leasehold Reform Act 1967
provides that the term "house" includes any building "designed or adapted for living in" and "reasonably so called". As per Lord Neuberger, s 2 involves a two part test. One looks first to see whether the property was originally designed for living in. One then goes on to consider whether work has subsequently been done to the property so that the original "design" has been changed.
Grosvenor's case was that the property was not as at the date of service of the notice "designed or adapted for living in" as the upper floors were unoccupied and very dilapidated. That argument was accepted by the Court of Appeal, Laws LJ saying that "because of the grave dilapidation apparent from the photographs the upper floors of the [property] were not at [relevant time] designed or adapted for living in". The House of Lords disagreed. The property was originally "designed or adapted for living in" and therefore fell within the definition of a "house".
Lord Neuberger (with whom all the other judges concurred):
"It seems to me that, as a matter of ordinary language, reinforced by considering other provisions of the sub-section, and supported by the original terms of section 1(1), as well as by considerations of practicality and policy, the property was at [the relevant date] 'designed or adapted for living in' within section 2 (1). The fact that the property had become internally dilapidated and incapable of beneficial occupation (without the installation of floor boards, plastering, re-wiring, re-plumbing and the like) does not detract from the fact that the property was designed for living in, when it was first built, and nothing that has happened subsequently has changed that. While internal structural works will no doubt have been carried out to the property from time to time over the past 275 years, it seems very likely from the floor plans that its layout, in terms of internal wall partitions and staircases, has not changed much since the property was built. In any event, the upper three floors have always been laid out for residential use.
In my judgment, the words "designed or adapted for living in", as a matter of ordinary English, require one first to consider the property as it was initially built: for what purpose was it originally designed? That is the natural meaning of the word "designed", which is a past participle. One then goes on to consider whether work has subsequently been done to the property so that the original "design" has been changed: has it been adapted for another purpose, and if so what purpose? When asking either question, one is ultimately concerned to decide whether the purpose for which the property has been designed or adapted, was "for living in".
Block of flats
Magnohard Ltd v Cadogan
 EWCA Civ 594
The Court of Appeal has held that building which was a block of flats could not reasonably be called a “house” for the purposes of the Leasehold Reform Act 1967 s2(1).
This case concerned a building that consisted of a self-contained flat on each of five upper floors above three shops and two flats on the ground floor. Although there had been alterations since it was constructed in 1888 it remained substantially as constructed. At first instance the High court decided that it was primarily a block of flats and was not therefore a house reasonably so called.
Whether the building was a house reasonably so called?
Decision on appeal
The Court dismissed the appeal.
LJ Lewison, who gave the leading judgment, cited extensive case law to establish the proposition put forward by the judge below that the question is not whether it is possible to call a building a house, but whether it is reasonable to do so i.e. the phrase “reasonably so called” had the effect of limiting what might otherwise be called a house.
He referred to a number of cases where judges had used the case of a block of flats to illustrate what might not be a house “reasonably so called”. He agreed with that approach in this case.
The Master of the Rolls gave a concurring judgment and said that a building:
“constructed laid out and used as a block of substantial self-contained flats throughout its 120 years of existence cannot reasonably be called a house – at least in the absence of unusual factors”.
Although this building fell outside what is a house “reasonably so called”, it should not be assumed that a block of flats can never be a house. There will be buildings that were not originally constructed as flats, or have not always been laid out as such or are, not at the date of the notice used as such, all of which will cause difficulties.
What if it is used for commercial purposes?
Originally a house
Day v Hosebay; Howard de Walden Estates Ltd v Lexgorge
 UKSC 41
Properties used entirely for commercial purposes are not "houses” within the meaning of the Leasehold Reform Act 1967.
This case involved conjoined appeals. The tenant in the first appeal had long leases of three terraced properties that were originally houses but were now used as
short-term accommodation for tourists
. The tenant in the second appeal had a long lease on a property that was originally a town house but was now used as
The tenants gave notice to acquire the freeholds of the properties under the Leasehold Reform Act 1967. Those notices were resisted by the appellant landlords on the basis that the premises were not houses under s2(1) of the 1967 Act as they could not be described as a "house reasonably so called"; and also that the premises were not a "house" as they were not "designed or adapted for living in".
The issue before the Supreme Court was the question of what is a house for the purposes of the definition set out at
s2(1) of the 1967 Act
. The court considered what were two separate but overlapping questions: whether a building is one that is “designed or adapted for living in”; and whether a building is a “house … reasonably so called”. Lord Carnwarth:
“The two parts of the definition are in a sense ‘belt and braces’: complementary and overlapping, but both needing to be satisfied. The first looks to the identity or function of the building based on its physical characteristics. The second ties the definition to the primary meaning of “house” as a single residence, as opposed to say a hostel or a block of flats; but that in turn is qualified by the specific provision relating to houses divided horizontally. Both parts need to be read in the context of a statute which is about houses
as places to live in
, not about houses as pieces of architecture, or features in a street scene, or names in an address book.”
In each case the Supreme Court held that the premises were not to be regarded as a house reasonably so called.
The first part of the above test: whether a building is one that is “designed or adapted for living in”, had been considered by the House of Lords in
Boss Holdings v Grosvenor West End Properties Ltd
 1 WLR 289. That case concerned an 18th century town house, the lower floors of which were in commercial use. The upper floors were dilapidated. It was held that the property had been “
” for living in when it had first been built in the 1730s and nothing that had happened subsequently, including the internal dilapidation and unsuitability for immediate residential occupation, detracted from that fact. So in consequence a building that had no actual residential use could be a house reasonably so called.
The first part of the test was not in issue here but in reviewing the decision in
Lord Carnwarth added a gloss by suggesting that:
“Where a building is in
active and settled use
for a particular purpose, the likelihood is that it has undergone at least some physical adaptation to make it suitable for that purpose. That in most cases can be taken as the use for which it is currently “adapted”, and in most cases it will be unnecessary to look further.”
As to the second part of the test, i.e. whether premises were a house reasonably so called, Lord Carnwath reviewed the decision of the House of Lords in
Tandon v Trustees of Spurgeons Homes
 AC 755. He commented on the relative lack of weight given by the majority of the judgments in that case to the appearance of the buildings as a factor in considering this second part of the test.
He went on to deal with the decision of the Court of Appeal in
Prospect Estates Ltd v Grosvenor Estate Belgravia
 EWCA Civ 1281 where it was held that a building which had been designed and built as a house, but which for many years had been used almost wholly as offices, was not a house within the definition. He said:
“…in so far as Mummery LJ treated the use of the building, rather than its physical appearance, as determinative, his approach was in my view entirely consistent with the reasoning of the majority in
as I have explained it. I consider that
… was rightly decided, and that the ratio need not be limited in the way the Master of the Rolls proposed.”
As in both of the cases that were the subject of this appeal, the use of the building was 100% commercial, they were not houses reasonably so called.
In this much anticipated decision the Supreme Court has provided very welcome clarification of the position in relation to the question of what is a house for the purposes of the second part of the definition set out in s2(1) of the Leasehold Reform Act 1967. It seems clear that, in essence, use is the determinative factor and if the premises are currently being used for entirely for commercial purposes they will not be a house “reasonably so called”.
Property unused for many years
Grosvenor (Mayfair) Estate v Merix International Ventures Ltd
 EWCA Civ 190
A town house used in the past for mixed residential and office user and unused for a number of years was a house reasonably so called for the purposes of the LRA 1967. The Court of Appeal refused to interfere with the county court judge’s finding to that effect when he had properly directed himself by reference to the relevant authorities.
The case involved a large London townhouse 41 Upper Grosvenor Street with an annexed mews building 41 Reeves Mews which, following residential use by King Peter II of Yugoslavia until shortly after the Second World War, was used at times partially for office purposes with residential accommodation on an upper floor or upper floors and in the Mews. The unusual feature was that the Property was left totally unused for 13 years prior to the relevant date.
Merix said that on the relevant date the building was a house, admittedly with traces of former office user, but nonetheless a house. Grosvenor said that the building was a disused office building with some ancillary residential accommodation and, therefore, not a house.
HHJ Gerald decided it was a house on the basis advanced by Merix.
The Court of Appeal rejected Grosvenor’s argument that the last user, or the last adaptation for use, was necessarily determinative of the character and identity of the building. The statute required the matter to be assessed at the relevant date. Turning the clock back to the time of the last user negated the statute. What the court has to do is to decide the building’s “present identity or function by reference to its physical character, whether derived from its original design or from its subsequent adaptation” at the relevant date (following Lord Carnwath at  in
). Past adaptation may have changed that identity or function, but the last user cannot be the only relevant consideration.
Once one reached that position an appellate court will be slow to disturb the findings of the trial judge who has had the benefit of an inspection.
McCombe LJ said as follows:
“Various types of building must, it seems to me, be amenable to varying characterisation by trial judges, doing their best to apply the principles emerging from decided cases. Any other solution is simply a recipe for an endless chain of appeals to the higher courts in an attempt to achieve a formal legal characterisation of individual properties to no advantage at all to the litigants involved.
80. Here the issue was whether this was a house, with traces of past office user, or was it a disused office building. Why, I ask, when a judge has taken full account (as this judge did) of all the guidance to be derived from precedent, should one overturn his assessment of whether or not this was a “house…reasonably so called”?”
The Court of Appeal declined to do so.
Malekshad v Howard de Walden Estates Ltd
 UKHL 49.
The House of Lords held that a house and a mews flat linked by a basement (which extended under both but was only used by one) and a door (between them at ground floor level) were not a single house for the purposes of s1 of the Leasehold Reform Act 1967. The case turned on the interpretation of material part of a house in s2(2).
Collins v Howard de Walden Estates Ltd
 EWCA Civ 545
This is another case where the court had to consider whether or not two properties were a house. In this case they had been joined together and on the facts the court found that there was one house for the purposes of the 1967 Act. The reasoning in
Back to top
If you have found this page useful, you may be interested in the following:
From £207 + VAT (1 year)
PropertyLawUK.net Ltd | Co. : 8439359 | Reg Office : 3 Shelbourne Close, Pinner, Middlesex HA5 3AF